“For the first time since he had entered Narnia he saw the dark green of a fir tree.”
Since childhood, I’ve had a powerful affection for conifers. Growing up in Saskatchewan, these motherly trees provided deep dark refuge from the summer heat. We would travel five hours to spend two weeks among the Jack Pine, Balsam Fir & White Spruce that surrounded the northern campsites. They were magic. They could make June smell like Christmas and in an attempt to capture some of that magic, I would bring pocketfuls of needles back home with me where they’d inevitably be forgotten about until my mother did laundry. Turns out a dried pine needle can really embed itself under a mother’s fingernail. Yikes. Again in December, a fragrant conifer provided refuge once more—this time from the dark, lighting up the corner of our living room with 70’s pinks, blues and oranges. But, no matter how romantic my childlike musings, eating conifers didn’t occur to me until I moved to the Pacific Northwest. Since then, I’ve been making up for lost time. From lemony Hemlock tea and Grand Fir pots de creme to Danielle’s Grand Fir Nougat, I’ve explored the sensory experience of culinary pine in the most delightful ways.
And so, shortbread seemed like the next logical step. I experimented with several recipes and eventually settled on three that I love for different reasons. The brown sugar version makes for a wonderfully dense and sturdy cookie with a definite fir flavour that pairs wonderfully with chocolate. But I will say that the oat flour version is my absolute favourite. Shortbread was originally made with oats, not wheat and this recipe makes for a perfectly crumbly biscuit with a glorious nutty flavour. And it’s gluten-free, to boot. Last, but certainly not least, the brown butter petticoat tails is oh-so refined with it’s more delicate texture and subtle pine notes. I often make all three recipes in a day, because why choose? And, really, once you’ve harvested the needles, you may as well go all in.
You can use any pine or fir needle for this recipe, once you’ve tested for edibility. All pine and fir needles are edible. You will find some references cautioning against Ponderosa Pines, but that’s a very specific warning for pregnant women and even then, you’d have to consume a great deal of strongly extracted pine to cause a problem (source). So, choose what is available and what tastes nice to you. And while we’re talking taste, do try to erase any ridiculous association you may have with pine cleaners. Conifers lend themselves wonderfully to baking. And these buttery, citrusy biscuits are positively bursting with forest magic! One can easily imagine them on Mr. Tumnus’s tea table or crisping up in the woodland ovens of the Seelie Court.
First thing’s first, you’re going to need some fir. Grand Fir is a crowd-pleaser with its tangerine notes and eyes-shot-heavenward fragrance. Douglas-fir, while not a true fir hence the hyphen, is a bit more resinous and “piney”. To me, Douglas-fir smells like Christmas. I love them both, so really just go with what you can find. When you’re foraging for fir, look for the younger growth at the tips of the boughs. You can use spring growth, however, I think those tender, citrusy lime green tips are better enjoyed fresh in salads or for something less demanding than a chunky buttery shortbread. You want needles that have come into their proper piney selves. Needles that taste the way they smell. Avoid very old or dark green needles. They’re too resinous and lend a bitter, astringent aftertaste. Every tree has a unique flavour, so make time for a little coniferous taste testing. You really don’t have to harvest much to get the cup of needles needed to cover both of these recipes. Clip only what you need, don’t ravage any one tree and never snip the top off of a young tree—you’ll expose it to nasties and stunt its growth. Here in the PNW, it’s easy enough to forage for evergreens in the city. But if you do head into the woods, be mindful of where you go and what you do. These trees are sacred to our First Peoples as they should be to all of us.
Next, de-needle. The twiggy stems are definitely bitter, so you only want to be grinding up the needles. Working in batches, grind needles as finely as you can using a spice or coffee grinder. If you have something fancier like a Vitamix or whatnot…well, I’m jealous. Keep grinding until you have the 1/2 cup needed for each recipe. You can store leftover ground needles, sealed, in the fridge for a few days.
Brown Sugar Evergreen Shortbread
1 cup butter, softened (the best quality you can get your hands on)
1/2 cup of fresh evergreen needles (I used Douglas-fir), finely ground
1 1/4 cups packed brown sugar
1 teaspoon orange zest
2 1/2 cups all-purpose flour
Beat butter and sugar until creamy. I used my stand mixer. Add the ground needles and orange zest; then gradually stir in flour until well blended.
If you’re planning to roll out and cut your cookies, gather the dough into a disc and wrap it well with plastic wrap. Let it firm up in the fridge for at least an hour. If you’re using a cookie mould or want to simply slice rounds, roll the dough into a couple of logs, wrap and refrigerate. If you are slicing rounds, it’s nice to roll the logs of dough in sparkly, organic cane or chunky amber rock sugar for a pleasing crunchy ring-around-the-cookie effect.
I like to use my Chinese moon cake mould to make large, beautiful gift-worthy shortbread cookies.
Preheat oven to 300 degrees F (150 degrees C).
Rolling/Cutting: On a lightly floured area, roll out the dough to 1/4″ thickness, cut into desired shapes (may I suggest a Christmas tree cutter?) and place on a parchment-lined baking sheet. Sprinkle with sugar, if you fancy.
Moulded/Rounds: Slice 1/4 ” rounds or pack your floured cookie mould with dough. Enjoy the therapeutic thwacking required to loosen the dough from the mould. Truly enjoyable, this part. Sprinkle tops with organic cane sugar.
Regardless, of what you decide to do with the dough, keep in mind this is a very crispy recipe—so don’t go too thick or you’ll find yourself tottering over from toothsome to tooth breaker in a heartbeat. And if you find you’ve gotten distracted by (insert standard life disaster here) and your cookies may have warmed up a bit in your kitchen, just pop them into the freezer for 5 mins. This will prevent them from spreading.
Pop in the oven for a good 20-25 minutes or until the biscuits are firm to the (very gentle) touch. It’s a low & slow bake for an extra-crispy cookie. If you’ve used a cookie mould, your biscuits may be a bit thicker, so adjust your time accordingly. While the cookies cool, melt some high-quality chocolate over a double boiler. 16 ounces was enough for to cover 18 large molded cookies. Dip biscuits in the melted chocolate and allow to harden at room temperature before you either store in an airtight container or freeze. And these do freeze like a dream.
Scottish Grand Fir Oat Shortbread (Gluten-Free)
1/2 cup of fresh Grand-Fir needles (roughly chopped to release essential oils)
1/4 cup of fresh needles, finely ground
1 cup salted butter + up to 1/4 cup more (unsalted is fine, too – best quality you can get)
3.5 cups oat flour (you can grind your own from rolled oats in a food processor or coffee grinder – the finer the grind, the nicer the cookie)
1/2 cup of packed brown sugar
Brown the butter (here’s how) over medium-low heat, cooking until it turns a deep golden brown. Remove the pot from the heat and add 1/2 cup of pine needles and cover the pot with a lid. Allow the butter to infuse for at least 20 minutes or until you like the flavour. Strain out the needles and pour the melted butter into a shallow bowl to chill and reset. You want the consistency of softened butter. *When browning butter, you lose liquid in the process, so that when your brown butter has firmed up, you will have less than the required cup. There’s probably a baking science-y thing you can do to adjust the amount from the outset, but I simply replace the lost amount with plain, softened butter.
In a large bowl (or mixer), cream together the butter, finely ground pine needles and sugar until blended well. Add the oat flour until combined. The dough will be crumbly, but it should hold together when pressed between your fingers.
Using your hands, press all of the dough together and form a cylinder about 2” thick. Wrap tightly with plastic wrap and refrigerate for at least 2 hours or overnight. Alternatively if you’re pressed for time (like I ALWAYS seem to be) you can toss the logs of dough in the freezer until they’re solid.
Pre-heat your oven to 325 degrees.
Once your dough is firm, remove it from the plastic wrap and brush the log with a bit of freshly squeezed orange juice. I just run a cut quarter of orange over the surface. Roll the moistened dough in sugar (optional, but you should do it because it’s tasty).
With a sharp knife, slice rounds of cold dough about a 1/4 inch thick and place them approximately 1/2 an inch apart on a parchment-lined cookie sheet. Bake for 15-18 minutes, rotating the cookie sheets half-way through baking.
Brown Butter Douglas-Fir Shortbread
1/2 cup of Douglas-Fir (roughly chopped to release essential oils – use a knife or scissors)
1 cup salted, good quality butter + up to 1/4 cup more
3/4 cup confectioner’s sugar
1/2 teaspoon orange zest
2 cups all-purpose flour
Organic cane sugar for dusting
Brown the butter (here’s how) over medium-low heat, cooking until it turns a deep golden brown, stirring to scrape up the browned bits. Watch carefully, because it really doesn’t take much to go from browned butter to burnt butter. Remove the pot from the heat and add the pine needles and cover the pot with a lid. Allow the butter to infuse for at least 20 minutes or until you like the flavour. Strain out the needles and pour the melted butter into a shallow bowl to chill and reset. You want the consistency of softened butter. *When browning butter, you lose liquid in the process, so that when your brown butter has firmed up, you will have less than the required cup. There’s probably a baking science-y thing you can do to adjust the amount from the outset, but I simply replace the lost amount with plain, softened butter.
Preheat oven to 300 degrees and lightly grease a 10′ fluted tart pan with a removable bottom. Remove the butter from the fridge and let it return to room temperature.
Beat the butter until light and creamy. I used my stand mixer. Add the confectioner’s sugar and beat on medium-high until fluffy. Add the orange zest and add the flour mixing just until it comes together
Press the dough into the tart pan, working quickly so as not to melt the dough with your fingers. Score the dough into wedges and prick the dough all over with a toothpick. Sprinkle with sanding sugar.
Bake for an hour or until lightly golden brown. Cut the shortbread into wedges along the score lines when the shortbread is still warm and fresh from the oven. Allow it to cool completely before you attempt transferring or serving.